Rare Earth Metals

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The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age

 (The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal)
A natural resource strategist investigates the growing global demand for rare metals and what it means to the environment and our future Our future hinges on a set of elements that few of us have even heard of. In this surprising and revealing book, David S. Abraham unveils what rare metals are and why our electronic gadgets, the most powerful armies, and indeed the fate of our planet depend on them. These metals have become the building blocks of modern society; their properties are now essential for nearly all our electronic, military, and “green” technologies. But their growing use is not without environmental, economic, and geopolitical consequences. Abraham traces these elements’ hidden paths from mines to our living rooms, from the remote hills of China to the frozen Gulf of Finland, providing vivid accounts of those who produce, trade, and rely on rare metals. He argues that these materials are increasingly playing a significant role in global affairs, conferring strength to countries and companies that can ensure sustainable supplies. Just as oil, iron, and bronze revolutionized previous eras, so too will these metals. The challenges this book reveals, and the plans it proposes, make it essential reading for our rare metal age.

Rare: The High-Stakes Race to Satisfy Our Need for the Scarcest Metals on Earth

 (Rare: The High-Stakes Race to Satisfy Our Need for the Scarcest Metals on)
How will your life change when the supply of tantalum dries up? You may have never heard of this unusual metal, but without it smartphones would be instantly less omniscient, video game systems would falter, and laptops fail.  Tantalum is not alone.  Rhodium. Osmium. Niobium. Such refugees from the bottom of the periodic table are key components of many consumer products like cell phones, hybrid car batteries, and flat screen televisions, as well as sophisticated medical devices and even weapon systems. Their versatile properties have led manufacturers to seek these elements out to maximize longevity, value, and efficiency, but not without a human price. In addition to explaining the chemistry behind rare earth metals, Rare delves into the economic and geopolitical issues surrounding these “conflict minerals,” blending tales of financial and political struggles with glimpses into the human lives that are shattered by the race to secure them. In the past decade, the Congo has been ravaged by tribal wars fought to obtain control of tantalum, tungsten, and tin supplies in the region, with over five million people dying at the crossroads of supply and demand. A burgeoning black market in China, Africa, and India is propped up by school-age children retrieving and purifying the...

Europium metal 99.9999% exotic rare earth metal 1g

 (Europium metal 99.9999% exotic rare earth metal)
This is both a pricey and delicate element. Although it is nowhere near as reactive as the alkali metals, europium is nevertheless the most easily tarnished of the lanthanides and will rust readily in air forming greenish oxides. On top of its chemical reactivity europium is also soft and extremely rare making its demand as a pure metal essentially nil. The vast majority of rare earth metals dome from chief ore monazite, a type of sand that is reasonably abundant. However, even here Eu got the short end of the stick as typical yields top out at about 0.05% by ore weight compared to almost 50% lanthanum and cerium! This means that after the arduous process of putting all that sand through acid baths and centrifuges for each ton of lanthanum or cerium hauled away in a box car the tech hands over an envelope with a pitiful couple of ounces of europium. It's not hard to see why all these factors taken together leave europium as one of the most exotic metals in existence. After adding a little europium to your collection the rest of the series will seem like child's play! Ships in mineral oil to control oxidation.

China’s Rare Earth Metals Monopoly: Does It Undermine U.S. Security?

 (China’s Rare Earth Metals Monopoly: Does It Undermine U.S.)
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A-, Utrecht University (Roosevelt Academy), course: Security in the Post-Cold War Era, language: English, abstract: Rare earth metals are chemical elements which are widely unknown to the general public but nevertheless can be found in everyday life. They are critical components of digital cameras, rechargeable batteries and magnets, of surgical lasers, polishing powders and military tanks. Even though their name suggests differently, they are not specifically rare but they often only exist in small deposits scattered over the globe which makes mining often fairly unprofitable. From 1986 onwards China established itself as the biggest producer of rare earth metals with by 2010 supplying 97% of world demand (Humphries, 2011, p. 13). In the past five years prices have been seen to increase tremendously and during the Senkaku boat collision incident, China imposed a trade embargo for rare earth metals against its opponent Japan. The question is to what extent China is going to use its dominant position in the future, specifically in regard to one of the biggest rare earth metal consumer, the United States. In the following the question whether China...

China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths

 (China and the Geopolitics of Rare)
Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies-everything from iPhones and medical technologies to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines. While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply.Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" curtailed exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tension between the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies.In this book, Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of econom...

Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals: Structure and Properties (Advances in Metallic Alloys) (v. 3)

 (Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals: Structure and Properties (Advances in Metallic Alloys) (v.)
Magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals are important structural materials, as they combine low density with high-strength properties. This makes them particularly attractive for industry, especially in cases where the low weight of constructions is critical, as in aircraft and space apparatus construction. One of the remarkable features of alloys is the significant difference made by individual rare-earth metals when they are added to magnesium. This second edition of Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare-Earth Metals: Structure and Properties describes the constitution and properties of magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals. It presents the dependence of their characteristics on their atomic number and place in the periodic table and discusses new ideas for rare-earth metals as alloying additives to magnesium. This volume consists mainly of research from Russian scientists but also contains western literature making it a valuable reference tool for students, researchers and professionals in materials science and metallurgy.

Rare Earth Frontiers: From Terrestrial Subsoils to Lunar Landscapes

 (Rare Earth Frontiers: From Terrestrial Subsoils to Lunar)
Rare Earth Frontiers is a work of human geography that serves to demystify the powerful elements that make possible the miniaturization of electronics, green energy and medical technologies, and essential telecommunications and defense systems. Julie Michelle Klinger draws attention to the fact that the rare earths we rely on most are as common as copper or lead, and this means the implications of their extraction are global. Klinger excavates the rich historical origins and ongoing ramifications of the quest to mine rare earths in ever more impossible places.Klinger writes about the devastating damage to lives and the environment caused by the exploitation of rare earths. She demonstrates in human terms how scarcity myths have been conscripted into diverse geopolitical campaigns that use rare earth mining as a pretext to capture spaces that have historically fallen beyond the grasp of centralized power. These include legally and logistically forbidding locations in the Amazon, Greenland, and Afghanistan, and on the Moon. Drawing on ethnographic, archival, and interview data gathered in local languages and offering possible solutions to the problems it documents, this book examines the production of the rare earth frontier as a place, a concept, and a zone of contestation, sacrif...

Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Metals

 (Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth)
The rare earths have a unique place among the elements. Although very much alike chemically and in most phy~ical properties they each have very different and striking magnetic properties. The reason, of course, lies in their 4f electrons which determine the magnetic properties but have little effect on other chemical and physical behaviour. Although they are not rare, some indeed are among the more common heavy elements in the earth's crust, the difficulty of separation has meant that their intricate magnetic properties have only recently been unravelled. Now, however, the general pattern of their magnetism is well charted and the underlying theory is well understood. Both are thoroughly summarised in this book. It provides an excellent example of the kind of extensive synthesis which is possible with modem solid state physics. it represents only a high plateau in the ascent to complete understanding. But It will become clear to the reader that while the overall position is satisfactory there are many details still to be elucidated experimentally and much to be done theoretically before all the underlying forces are identified and estimated from a priori calculations. It is hoped that the book will provide a useful stimulus in this direction. It should also be of use to those who...

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

 (Extractive Metallurgy of Rare)
New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths d...

The Metals of the Rare Earths

Rare Earth Metals (The Metals of the Rare Earths)

Analysis, Detection and Commercial Value of the Rare Metals : A Treatise on the Occurrence and Distribution of the Rare Metals and Earths, the Methods of Determination and Their Commercial Value in the Arts and Industries with a Historical and Statistical

Rare Earth Metals (Analysis, Detection and Commercial Value of the Rare Metals : A Treatise on the Occurrence and Distribution of the Rare Metals and Earths, the Methods of Determination and Their Commercial)

Rare Earth Metal Complexes

Rare Earth Metals (Rare Earth Metal Complexes)

10Types of Rare Earth Element metal Samples Sealed in Argon Glass

Rare Earth Metals (10Types of Rare Earth Element metal Samples Sealed in Argon)

10g High Purity 99.9% Samarium 3N Sm Metal Argon Sealed in Glass Tube Rare Earth

Rare Earth Metals (10g High Purity 99.9% Samarium 3N Sm Metal Argon Sealed in Glass Tube Rare)

Scrap Metal Testing Magnet Rare Earth Neodymium N52 Test for Silver & Gold

Rare Earth Metals (Scrap Metal Testing Magnet  Rare Earth Neodymium N52 Test for Silver &)
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